Lesson 11: 동안, Seconds, Minutes, Hours, Days, Weeks, Months, Years

Lesson 11: 동안, Seconds, Minutes, Hours, Days, Weeks, Months, Years

Vocabulary

Months of the year:
1월 (일월) = January
2월 (이월) = February
3월 (삼월) = March
4월 (사월) = April
5월 (오월) = May
6월 (유월) = June*
7월 (칠월) = July
8월 (팔월) = August
9월 (구월) = September
10월 (시월) = October*
11월 (십일월) = November
12월 (십이월) = December

*June (6월/유월) and October (10월/시월) should actually be 육월 and 십월 but, written like that, they are difficult to pronounce. Because of this, their correct pronunciations are 유월 and 시월 NOT 육월 and 십월.

Click on the English words below to see information and examples of that word in use. You probably won’t be able to understand the grammar within the sentences at this point, but seeing words being used in sentences is very helpful for understanding how they can be used.

A PDF file neatly presenting these words and extra information can be found here.

Nouns:
기회 = chance/opportunity

계획 = plans

회사원 = office worker

요리사 = a cook/chef

운전사 = a driver

Verbs:
달리다 = to run

요리하다 = to cook

운전하다 = to drive

죽다 = to die

Adjectives:
두렵다 = to be scared

이상하다 = to be strange

Adverbs and Other words:
동안 = for, during, while

달 = month

개월 = month

하루 = one day

이틀 = two days

사흘 = three days

지난 주 = last week

지난 달 = last month

이번 주 = this week

이번 달 = this month

다음 주 = next week

다음 달 = next month

작년 = last year

올해 = this year

내년 = next year

평생 (동안) = in my whole life

보통 = usually

For help memorizing these words, try using our Memrise tool.
.

Introduction

In this lesson, you will build on what you learned in Lesson 10 by learning how to use a variety of different words of time in Korean. Using these words, you will be able to say “I did X for 2 months” or “I didn’t do Y last week.” You will also learn whether you should use the pure Korean or Sino-Korean numbers when using these different words of time.

The use of pure Korean or Sino-Korean numbers may seem random, but there is a reason for it. Anytime the ‘time’ word is of Chinese origin, the Sino-Korean numbers are used. For example “개월” (month) is counted using Sino-Korean numbers, because “개월” is of Chinese origin and has corresponding Chinese (한자) characters. “달” (also meaning month) is a Korean word, and thus, counted using Korean numbers. A lot of Korean words are of Chinese origin and have corresponding Chinese (한자) characters. You will learn about those later.

This lesson is a little bit less organized than the previous lessons. It was difficult to teach everything in this lesson together because you need to have a mutual understanding of all concepts in order to understand one of them. In order to understand how to use 동안, you need to know how to use 주. But in order to understand how to use 주, you should understand how to use 동안. Around and around we go. Anyways, I made it as simple as possible. After this lesson, any time you learn about other ‘time’ grammar concepts, it should be really easy because this lesson will give you a solid base to work from.
“For” a certain amount of time (동안)

동안 is a very useful word that can be used to tell how long something is being done. It can also be used to say “While I was… during the…” but you will learn about that application in Lesson 33 (the grammar is too complex for you right now). 동안 gets added after any indication of length of time. For example:

2분 = 2 minutes
2분 동안 = for 2 minutes

10분 = 10 minutes
10분 동안 = for 10 minutes

이틀 = two days
이틀 동안 = for two days

Those can then be added into sentences to indicate how long one does something for. Notice also that no additional particle is added to 동안. One would think that 에 should be added, but it is not.

저는 10분 동안 걸었어요 = I walked for 10 minutes
저는 30분 동안 공부했어요 = I studied for 30 minutes

While the translation of “동안” in these examples is usually “for”, in essence, what you are doing is stating “for that period of time.” Understanding this will help you understand later usages of “동안” in future lessons. For example:

저는 10분 동안 걸었어요 = I walked for (a period of) 10 minutes
저는 30분 동안 공부했어요 = I studied for (a period of) 30 minutes
저는 이틀 동안 안 잤어요 = I didn’t sleep for two days

Remember:

It doesn’t matter if you use the word or the numeral when writing a number. However, typically the word is written when a pure Korean word is used with a counter like 개, 명, 번, 시간, 대, 살, etc. In situations where Sino-Korean numbers are written (for example, in the sentences above) it makes no difference if you write the numeral or the word.

Also remember that the spacing is different depending on if you write a numeral or a word. If writing the word, there should be a space between the number and the word. For example:

저는 십 분 동안 걸었어요

If writing a numeral, it doesn’t matter if you include a space or not. Both are seen as acceptable:

저는 10분 동안 걸었어요
저는 10 분 동안 걸었어요

I want to show you more and more examples of 동안, but at this point, the only time word you are familiar with at this point is “분” (minutes). Let’s move on to hours.

Korean Hours (시간)

Talking about minutes is easy because you always simply use 분. For example:

3시 20분 means “3:20”, and
20분 동안 means “for 20 minutes”

When talking about hours, however, 시 is used when talking about the hour on a clock, whereas 시간 is used when counting hours. Notice the difference between these two sets:

3시 = 3:00
세 시 = Three o’clock

3시간 동안 = for 3 hours
세 시간 동안 = for three hours

Remember that pure Korean numbers are used when talking about hours. I usually write out the Korean word when I’m referring to an amount of hours as in the examples below. For example:

저는 세 시간 동안 잤어요 = I slept for 3 hours
저는 한 시간 동안 달렸어요 = I ran for one hour
저는 여덟 시간 동안 운전했어요 = I drove for eight hours
저는 어제 한 시간 동안 야구를 했어요 = I played baseball for an hour yesterday
저는 어제 두 시간 동안 TV를 봤어요* = I watched TV for two hours yesterday

*Notice that 보다 (to see) is used when watching something. You can also use 보다 when you watch a performance or concert, or similar things. In English “I saw a TV” and “I watched TV” have two different meanings, but Koreans simply say “I see TV.”

At this point you are probably asking saying “Okay, I understand how to say that I have done things for X hours or minutes, but what about if I want to say something like:

I will eat in three hours, or
I ate three hours ago

I will go in 10 minutes, or
I came 10 minutes ago”

You will learn how to create those types of sentences when you learn about 전 and 후 in Lesson 24. For the moment, there is a ton of content in this lesson, so try to focus on what is presented here.

Korean Seconds (초)

When talking about seconds, you need to use the Sino-Korean numbers. When putting a number before “초,” it doesn’t matter if you use the word or the numeral. For example:

1초 = 1 second
일 초 = one second

2초 = 2 seconds
이 초 = 2 seconds

2초 동안 = for 2 seconds
이 초 동안 = for two seconds

Examples in sentences:
저는 2초 동안 달렸어요 = I ran for 2 seconds
저는 그 사람을 10초 동안 만났어요 = I met that person for 10 seconds
1분은 60초입니다 = One minute is sixty seconds

Last/Next (지난/다음)

지난 and 다음 are two more very important words that you can use in many situations. In Lesson 10, you learned about 마지막, which means ‘the last thing in a sequence,’ as in: “This is my last chance (이것은 저의 마지막 기회예요).” Remember, Korean people use another word for the other meaning of “last,” as in: “I saw a movie last week.”

In the first example, “last” is the final chance in a sequence of chances.
In the second example, “last” refers to a time in the past (last year, last month, etc.)

You already know that the word for last in the first example is 마지막. The word for last in the second example is 지난. 지난 can be added immediately before some words of time to mean “last ____.” For example:

저는 지난 주에 영화를 봤어요 = I saw a movie last week
저는 지난 주에 캐나다에 갔어요 = I went to Canada last week.
저는 지난 수업을 안 들었어요 = I didn’t go to/attend the last class

In order to say “attend a class,” Korean people say “수업을 듣다,” which literally translates to “listen to/hear a class.” As such, you can see that the particle ~을 is attached to “수업” because “the class” is the noun that is being listened to. Korean learners are sometimes confused as to why “~에” is not attached to “수업” because they are accustomed to the English way of saying “I didn’t go to the last class”.

Also, note that this sentence is also correct, but is referring to a different class than above:
저는 마지막 수업을 안 들었어요 = I didn’t attend the last class.
Remember the difference between 지난 and 마지막 in the previous lesson.

지난 can be added only before some words of time. For example, you couldn’t say “지난 분/지난 초.” These would mean “last minute/second” as in ‘the last minute/second that just passed – which doesn’t make any sense. Notice that they do not have the meaning of “I handed in my paper at the last minute.” This meaning refers to the last minute in a sequence of minutes; therefore, “마지막” must be used in this case.

시간, however, means “time” in addition to being a counter for “hours.” So, “지난 시간” can be used to mean “last time” (but not “last hour”).

저는 그것을 지난 시간에 배웠어요 = I learned that (thing) last time

You can also use the word 번 to refer to the last “time” something happened.

저는 그것을 지난 번에 배웠어요 = I learned that (thing) last time
우리가 지난 번에 계획이 없었어요 = We didn’t have plans last time
우리는 지난 번에 돼지고기를 먹었어요 = We ate pork last time

다음 is used in the same way as 지난, but it means “next.” For example:

저는 다음 주에 영화를 볼 거예요 = I will see a movie next week
저는 다음 주에 캐나다에 갈 거예요 = I will go to Canada next week

Like above, 다음 can be used with 시간 to mean “next time,” but not “next hour.”

우리는 다음 번에 학교에 갈 거예요 = We will go to school next time
우리는 다음 시간에 학교에 갈 거예요 = We will go to school next time

나는 너를 다음 번에 방문할 거야 = I will visit you next time
나는 너를 다음 시간에 방문할 거야 = I will visit you next time

Korean Days (일/날/하루)

Days are very confusing in Korean because there are a few different words you need to be acquainted with. You learned the names of the days of the week in the vocabulary section of another lesson. You should have noticed that every day of the week ends in 일. 일 means “day” but it is never used alone (if it is used alone, it means ‘work’). I’m looking at my Korean calendar now, and see a variety of words ending in “일.” Don’t worry about these words now, just recognize the importance of “일” within them:

총선 = general election
총선일 = the day of the general election (election day)
현충일 = Memorial day

일 is also the counter for days. You learned in Lesson 10 that you must use pure Korean numbers when counting. When you count days, however, you use Sino-Korean numbers. When putting a number before “일,” it doesn’t matter if you use the word or the numeral.

나는 3일 동안 공부했어 = I studied for 3 days
나는 삼 일 동안 공부했어 = I studied for 3 days

나는 3일 동안 학교에 안 갔어 = I didn’t go to school for 3 days
나는 삼 일 동안 학교에 안 갔어 = I didn’t go to school for 3 days

저는 5일 동안 계획이 없을 거예요 = I won’t have plans for 5 days
우리는 6일 동안 만나지 않았어요 = We didn’t meet for 6 days

To make things more confusing, if you are counting days from 1 – 10 there is a word that corresponds to “one day,” another word that corresponds to “2 days,” another word that corresponds to “3 days” etc… The most common of these words is 하루 which means “one day.” 하루 is used much more than 일 일. But 2일 (이 일)/3일 (삼 일)/4일 (사 일)/5일 (오 일)/etc are used more than their corresponding words.

저는 하루 동안 여행했어요 = I traveled for 1 day
저는 사흘 동안 밥을 안 먹었어요 = I didn’t eat rice for 3 days
저는 삼일 동안 밥을 안 먹었어요 = I didn’t eat rice for 3 days
우리는 이틀 동안 미국에 있었어요 = We were in America for two days
우리는 10일 동안 한국에 있을 거예요 = We will be in Korea for ten days

You can also place a (Sino-Korean) number before 일 to refer to a specific day in a month. It seems like it would be easy to confuse when one is talking about the day of a month (3일) and when doing something for a specific period (3일). But, in sentences, these are easily distinguishable:

나는 3일에 수업을 들었어 = I went to class on the 3rd (day of the month)
나는 3일 동안 수업을 들었어 = I went to class for three days

You can refer to a specific day and month by adding #일 after #월:

3월 2일 = March 2nd
5월 25일 = May 25th

저는 8월 15일에 도착할 거예요 = I will arrive on August 15th
저는 이 여권을 1월 2일에 받았어요 = I received my passport on January 2nd

날 is another word that means “day” and can be used as a stand alone word, but not counted. It is used when talking about a specific day by itself. For example:

저는 그 날에 갔어요 = I went on that day
저는 그 날에 계획이 있어요 = I have plans on that day
저는 그 날에 선생님이 되었어요 = I became a teacher on that day
우리는 그 날에 시작할 거예요 = We will start on that day

If you want to talk about doing something on the first/second/third day, you can use 번째 (which you learned in the previous lesson) with 날. For example:

우리는 두 번째 날에 서울에 갔어요 = We went to Seoul on the second day
우리는 둘째 날에 서울에 갔어요 = We went to Seoul on the second day

우리는 세 번째 날에 안 만났어요 = We didn’t meet on the third day
우리는 셋째 날에 안 만났어요 = We didn’t meet on the third day

저는 네 번째 날에 계획이 없어요 = I have no plans on the fourth day
저는 넷째 날에 계획이 없어요 = I have no plans on the fourth day

첫날 is a word that specifically refers to the first day:

저는 첫날에 명동에 갔어요 = I went to 명동 on the first day
저는 첫날에 그 여자를 만났어요 = I met that girl on the first day

Korean Weeks (주)

Weeks in Korean can be used in sentences just like 일 (day) except that there are no other weird words to worry about. You use Sino-Korean numbers when talking about weeks:

저는 다음 주에 미국에 갈 거예요 = I will go to the US next week
지난 주에 저는 계획이 많았어요 = I had a lot of plans last week

The word “주” can also be used as a counter to counter weeks. When counting weeks, just like when counting days, Sino-Korean numbers are used. When putting a number before “주,” it doesn’t matter if you use the word or the numeral. For example:

저는 2주 동안 한식을 안 먹었어요 = I didn’t eat Korean food for 2 weeks
저는 4주 동안 여자친구를 안 만났어요 = I didn’t meet my girlfriend for 4 weeks

저는 이 주 동안 한식을 안 먹었어요 = I didn’t eat Korean food for two weeks
저는 사 주 동안 여자친구를 안 만났어요 = I didn’t meet my girlfriend for four weeks

The word “주일” can also be used as a counter for weeks. This is acceptable, but it sounds a bit more natural to use “주” as shown above. For example:

저는 2주일 동안 한식을 안 먹었어요 = I didn’t eat Korean food for two weeks
저는 4주일 동안 여자친구를 안 만났어요 = I didn’t meet my girlfriend for four weeks

Korean Months (달/개월)

First, notice that the names of each month correspond to the number of the month in the calendar For example:

January = 1월
February = 2월
December = 12월

When counting months, you can either use 달 or 개월. When using 달, you must use the pure Korean numbers, and when using 개월, you must use the Sino-Korean numbers. There is no difference in meaning, and both are used frequently. When putting a number before 달, I prefer to write the Korean word. When putting a number before 개월, it doesn’t matter if you use the word of the numeral.

저는 두 달 동안 한국어 수업을 들었어요 = I took a Korean class for 2 months

저는 2개월 동안 한국어 수업을 들었어요 = I took a Korean class for 2 months
저는 이 개월 동안 한국어 수업을 들었어요 = I took a Korean class for 2 months

My Korean grammar teacher told me years ago that ‘동안’ is actually incorporated into the meaning of 달, which would mean that you wouldn’t have to say 동안 after 달. Still, though, most people use 동안 after 달.

Korean Years (년)

Years are used just like weeks, which means that you must use the Sino-Korean numbers. When putting a number before “주,” it doesn’t matter if you use the word or the numeral.:

저는 3년 동안 형을 안 만났어요 = I didn’t meet my brother for 3 years
저는 10년 동안 한국어를 공부했어요 = I studied Korean for 10 years

저는 삼 년 동안 형을 안 만났어요 = I didn’t meet my brother for three years
저는 십 년 동안 한국어를 공부했어요 = I studied Korean for ten years

However, if you want to say “last/next year” in Korean, you can’t use “지난/다음 년.” Instead, you must use separate words:

작년 = last year
내년 = next year, for example:

나는 내년에 한국에 갈 거야 = I will go to Korea next year
그 사람은 작년에 죽었어요 = That person died last year

This Week/This Month/This Time (이번)

Finally, you can use 이번 just like 지난/다음 when talking about weeks or months to mean “this week/this month.” You cannot say “이번 년,” instead you must use the separate word “올해.”

저는 이번 주에 계획이 없어요 = I have no plans this week
저의 어머니는 올해 한국에 올 것입니다 = My mom will come to Korea this year
Note here that it is common to see “에” omitted from the word “올해.” You can also see in the section above that this is not the case with 작년 and 내년.

You cannot use 이번 when talking about minutes/seconds/hours. “I want to go to school this hour” doesn’t make any sense. But remember, in addition to meaning ‘hour’ 시간 also means “time.” This means that you can, say 이번 시간 to mean “this time,” which is usually used when talking about “this time in class.” For example:

우리는 이번 시간에 많이 배웠어 = We learned a lot this time

In most other cases, it is more natural to use “이번에” instead of “이번 시간:”
나는 너를 이번에 안 만날 거야 = I won’t meet you this time

번 can also be added after 지난/다음 to mean “last/next time”

저는 박물관에 다음 번에 갈 거예요 = I will go to the museum next time
저는 박물관에 지난 번에 갔어요 = I went to the museum last time

“Per”

When talking about each of these units of time, you can add the particle ~에 to indicate within that unit of time, how much something was done. You can usually translate this to “per” in English. For example:

저는 이 약을 하루에 두 번 먹어요 = I eat (take) this medicine twice per day
저는 그 친구를 1주일에 두 번 만나요 = I meet that friend once per week
저는 여기에 한 달에 세 번 와요 = I come here three times per month
저는 1년에 두 번 미국에 가요 = I go to America twice per year

Almost all the examples in this lesson used 동안. There are other ways you can talk about these time words without using 동안 (for example, “I will go to Canada 3 days from now”). However, this lesson was reaching the 6 page mark, and I didn’t want to overload you more than I already have. I feel like the material in this lesson alone is enough to make your head spin for a while, so I will end it here.

In later lessons, you will learn how to apply the concepts you learned in this lesson to more complicated sentences.

290 Lượt xem