Japanese grammar jlpt n3 p1

Japanese grammar jlpt n3 p1

□1 日本の 首都は どこですか。=  

Where is the capital of Japan?

Thủ đô của Nhật ở đâu?

===>日本 : にほん : Japan : Nhật bản ;

===>首都: しゅと :capital : Thủ đô ;

□2 地球は 太陽の まわりを 回って いる。

The earth is turning around the sun.

Trái đất quay quanh mặt trời

===> 地球: ちきゅう    ;   太陽: たいよう   ;   回って いる:まわ

* 太陽の まわり = the sun’s surroundings

===>太陽: たいよう : the Sun : Mặt trời

* 回って いる = <plain-style-nonpast-affirmative> of 回って います = be turning now

===> 回って いる:まわ

* [te-form] います = 1 be doing now 2 <situation, state> 3 <habitual repeated action>

* 回ります g1 = turn, revolve, rotate


□3 あの 時計は 遅れて いる。

That clock is slow.

Đồng hồ đó chạy chậm

===>時計: とけい  ;  遅れて いる: おく

* 遅れて いる = <plain-style-nonpast-affirmative> of  = be late, be delayed

===>遅れて います: おく

* [te-form] います = 1 be doing now 2 <situation, state> 3 <habitual repeated action>

* 遅れます = be late, fall behind schedule, trail behind, be towed behind, be pulled in the back

□4 二人で 協力 すれば、仕事も 早く 終わる だろう。

= ふたり きょうりょく しごと はや お If two of us cooperate together, probably our work will finish early.

* すれば = if (X) do = conditional-form of します g3 (do)

* 終わる = <plain-style-nonpast-affirmative> of 終わります g1 (finish, end)


* [plain-style (‘da’ of ‘[na-adjective / noun] da’ must be omitted)] だろう’ is the plain-style of ‘….で しょう’ which means ‘Probably …..’ or ‘….., right?’
□5 大学の 奨学 金に 応募した。

=   I applied for the scholarship of my university.

===>奨学 金: しょうがくきん

===>  応募: おうぼ
* 応募した = applied = <plain-style-past-affirmative> of 応募します g3 (apply)

□6 子供の 疑問に 答えた。=   I answered my child’s question.

===>子供: こども

===>疑問: ぎもん

===>答えた: こた


* 答えた = answered = <plain-style-past-affirmative> of 答えます g2 (answer, reply)

===>答: こた
□7 試験の 成績が 発表された。=  はっぴょう The result of the examination was announced.

===>試験: しけん

===>成績: せいせき

===>発表: はっぴょう


* 発表された = was announced = <plain-style-past-affirmative> of 発表されます (be  announced) which is the passive-verb of 発表します g3 (announce)

===>発表 : はっぴょう
□8 単語の リストは 隣の ページに あります。= The list of the words are next to this page.

===>単語:  たんご

===>隣:  となり
問題2 □9 みんな で 話し合って、問題を 解決した。= はな あ もんだい かいけつ We discussed and solved the problem. * 話し合って = 話し合った。そして、 = discussed and …. はな あ はな あ * 話し合った = discussed = <plain-style-past-affirmative> of 話し合います g3 (discuss) はな あ はな あ * te-form is often used to join sentences or to mean ‘by (means of) doing ~, with doing ~’. And it is sometimes used to show reason as well. * [masu-form] aimasu = do ~ each other * 解決した = solved = <plain-style-past-affirmative> of 解決します g3 (solve) かいけつ かいけつ
□10 山口さん に 東京を 案内して もらった。= やまぐち とうきょう あんない Mr Yamaguchi showed me around Tokyo.
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(I received a favor from Mr Yamaguchi. The favor is ‘guiding me in Tokyo’.) * 案内して もらった = (He) guided me and I received a favor from him = <plain-style-past- あんない affirmative> of 案内して もらます (He guides me and I receive a favor from him.) あんない
2 家内 = my wife かない 3 室内 = indoors しつない
□11 私は 健康の ため に 毎日 走って います。= わたし けんこう まいにち はし I run everyday for the sake of my health. * [noun] の ため(に)’ = because of [noun] / for the sake of [noun] * 走ります g1 = run はし * [te-form] います = 1 be doing now 2 <situation, state> 3 <habitual repeated action>
□12 今年の 夏は 気温が 高かった。= ことし なつ きおん たか The temperature was high this summer. * 高かった = was high (expensive) = <plain-style-past-affirmative> of 高いです (be high, be たか たか expensive) * (X) は (Y) が (adjective) = <used to show characteristics>
□13 頭が 痛い ので、薬を 飲んだ。= あたま いた くすり の Because I have a headache, I took medicine. * [plain-style (but, ‘da’ of ‘[na-adjective / noun] da’ becomes ‘na’.)] ので = because ~ * 飲んだ = drank = <plain-style-past-affirmative> of 飲みます g1 (drink) の の
□14 この シャツは 工場で 大量に 作られて いる。= こうじょう たいりょう つく Large numbers of these shirts are made in the factory.
* 大量 = large quantity, very big amount, great amount たいりょう * 少量 = small quantity, small dose, small amount, bit しょうりょう * 作られて いる = <plain-style-nonpast-affirmative> of 作られて います = be being made now つく つく
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* 作られます = passive-verb (be made) of 作ります g1 (make) つく つく * [te-form] います = 1 be doing now 2 <situation, state> 3 <habitual repeated action>
1 多量 = large quantity, very big amount, great amount たりょう
1 関心 = concern, interest かんしん 2 不満 = dissatisfaction, displeasure, discontent, unhappiness ふまん 3 目標 = aim, mark, objective, target もくひょう 4 我慢 = patience, endurance, perseverance, tolerance, self-control, self-denial がまん
この 携帯電話は ボタンが 押し にくい という 不満を 持つ 利用者も いる。= けいたいでんわ お ふまん も りようしゃ There are the users who are dissatisfied with the fact that this handphone is hard to press the button. * この 携帯電話は ボタンが 押し にくい という 不満 = the dissatisfaction that this handphone is けいたいでんわ お ふまん hard to press the button * (X) という (Y) = (Y) called (X), (Y) named (X), (Y) which is (X) (It is used to supplement the contents of some noun. In ‘(X) to iu (Y)’, (X) illustrates (Y) concretely.) * 持つ = <plain-style-nonpast-affirmative> of 持ちます g1 = hold も も * いる。= <plain-style-nonpast-affirmative> of います sg2 = there is ~, have ~, exist
1 ぐらぐら = loose, let go, release; unfasten, untie 2 がらがら = clattering 3 ばらばら = separation, act of setting apart 4 ぶらぶら = aimlessly, idly, lazily, loiter, loaf, be idle, stroll idly / dangle heavily, swing,sway to and fro
街を ぶらぶら して いたら、山本さん に 会った。= まち やまもと あ I was loitering around the town. Then, I tell you what happened. I met Mr Yamamoto.
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* して いたら = If (X) is doing ~, When (X) is doing ~, After (X) is doing ~, (X) was doing ~ and I tell you what happened. * して いた = was doing = <plain-style-past-affirmative> of して います (be doing now) * します g3 = do * [te-form] います = 1 be doing now 2 <situation, state> 3 <habitual repeated action> * [ta-form] ら = If (X) do ~, When (X) do ~, After (X) do ~, (X) did ~ and I tell you what happened. * 会った = met = <plain-style-past-affirmative> of 会います g1 (meet) あ あ
1 証明 書 = certificate, official document (birth certificate, license, etc.) しょうめいしょ 2 領収 書 = receipt, bill of sale, written statement of purchases りょうしゅうしょ 3 申込 書 = application form, written application もうしこみしょ 4 参考書 = reference book, book containing information さんこうしょ
セミナーに 参加し たい人は、申込書に 住所、氏名、希望日を 書いて ください。= さんか ひと もうしこみしょ じゅうしょ しめい きぼう び か The person who wants to attend the seminar, please write your address, name and the day when you wish to attend on the application form. * 参加し たい = <plain-style-nonpast-affirmative> of 参加し たいです = want to participate さんか さんか * [masu-form] たいです = want to do ~ * 書きます g1 = write か
1 意外 = unexpectedness, state of being unexpected, state of being unforeseen いがい 2 重大 = importance, significance, consequence, worth, value; seriousness, gravity じゅうだい 3 複雑 = complexity, complication, intricacy, complicated quality ふくざつ 4 正常 = normalcy, normality せいじょう
この 計算は 複雑な ので、コンピューターを 使っても 時間が かかる。= けいさん ふくざつ つか じかん This calculation is complicated, so it takes time even if we use a computer.
* ので = [plain-style (but, ‘da’ of ‘[na-adjective / noun] da’ becomes ‘na’.)] ので = because ~ * 使っても = even if (X) use ~ つか * [te-form] も = even if ~
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* 使います g1 = use つか * かかる。 = <plain-style-nonpast-affirmative> of かかります g1 = (It) takes (time), (It) costs (money)
1 …. 産 = the product of …. → used for agricultural produce さん 2 …. 製 = made in …. → used for industrial produce せい 3 …. 作 = made by …. , created by …. → used for handmade produce さく 3 …. 品 = ひん
この オレンジは アメリカ産です。= さん This orange is the product of USA.
1 スピーチ = speech 2 インタビュー = interview 3 メッセージ = message 4 コミュニケーション = communication
優勝した 選手に インタビューを して 記事を 書いた。= ゆうしょう せんしゅ きじ か I interviewed the winner and wrote an article. * 優勝した 選手 = the player (the athlete) who won the cup (become a champion) ゆうしょう せんしゅ * インタビューを して = インタビューをした。そして、= interviewed and …. * インタビューを した = interviewed = <plain-style-past-affirmative> of インタビュー(を) します g3 (interview) * 書いた = wrote = <plain-style-past-affirmative> of 書きます g1 (write) か か
1 命令 = order, command, decree; instruction めいれい 2 返信 = reply, answer, response へんしん 3 主張 = claim, insistence, assertion, contention, pretension, act of insisting しゅちょう 4 注文 = order, request for something ちゅうもん / 6 11
全員が 自分の 意見を 主張した ので、会議が なかなか 終わらなかった。= ぜんいん じぶん いけん しゅちょう かいぎ お Because all members (everybody) insisted their own opinions, the meeting hardly ended. * 主張した = insisted = <plain-style-past-affirmative> of 主張します g3 (insist) しゅちょう しゅちょう * ので = [plain-style (but, ‘da’ of ‘[na-adjective / noun] da’ becomes ‘na’.)] ので = because ~ * なかなか =1 very, considerably, easily, readily, fairly, quite, highly, rather 2 (not) easily, (not) readily, be slow (in doing ~), by no means (with negative verb) * 終わらなかった = didn’t end = <plain-style-past-negative> of 終わります g1 (end, finish) お お
1 ぺらぺら = fluency, fluidness 2 からから = dryly, in a dry manner, without moisture 3 ふらふら = unsteady on one’s feet, wobbly, swaying 4 ぺこぺこ = fawningly, flatteringly
朝から 何も 飲んで いない ので、喉が からからです。= あさ なに の のど Because I haven’t drunk anything since morning, I am thirsty. * 飲んで いない = be not drinking now = <plain-style-nonpast-negative> of 飲んで います (be の の drinking now) * 飲みます g1 = drink の * [te-form] います = 1 be doing now 2 <situation, state> 3 <habitual repeated action> * ので = [plain-style (but, ‘da’ of ‘[na-adjective / noun] da’ becomes ‘na’.)] ので = because ~
1 貯めます = save, store た 2 載せます = place on top, load; pack (with goods, cargo, etc.) の 3 重ねます = pile up, put something on another, heap up, add, repeat かさ 4 加えます = add, append, sum up くわ
将来の ために、お金を 貯めて います。= しょうらい かね た I am saving money for my future. * [te-form] います = 1 be doing now 2 <situation, state> 3 <habitual repeated action>
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□24 私は 妻と 一緒に 通勤して います。= わたし つま いっしょ つうきん I commute to work with my wife. * 通勤します g3 = commute to work つうきん * [te-form] います = 1 be doing now 2 <situation, state> 3 <habitual repeated action>
1 仕事に 行って {います} = go for a job, go to work しごと い 2 勉強に 行って {います} = go for study, go to study べんきょう い 3 買い物に 行って {います} = go for shopping, go to shop か もの い 4 散歩に 行って {います} = go for a walk, go to take a walk さんぽ い
□25 とても 恐ろしい 経験を した。= おそ けいけん I had a dreadful experience. * 恐ろしい = terrible, dreadful, horrible; frightful, ghastly おそ * 経験を した = experienced, had an experience = <plain-style-past-affirmative> of 経験(を) し けいけん けいけん ます g3 (experience, have an experience)
1 楽しい = enjoyable, fun たの 2 嬉しい = happy, glad, pleasant うれ 3 恥ずかしい = shy, ashamed, embarrassed は 4 怖い・恐い = scary, frightening, eerie, dreadful こわ こわ
□26 先生に 訳を 話した。= せんせい わけ はな I said the reason to my teacher. * 訳 = reason 訳 = translation わけ やく * 話した = talked, spoke = <plain-style-past-affirmative> of 話します g1 (talk, speak) はな はな
1 アイディア = idea 2 ルール = rule
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3 理由 = reason りゆう 4 秘密 = secret ひみつ
□27 最近、この 川は 水が 減った 気が する。= さいきん かわ みず へ き I feel that the water of this river has decreased recently. * 減った = decreased = <plain-style-past-affirmative> of 減ります g1 (decrease) へ へ * 気がする = <plain-style-nonpast-affirmative> of 気が します g3 = feel き き * [plain-style] 気が します = I feel that ~ き
1 多く なった = became more = <plain-style-past-affirmative> of 多く なります (become more) おお おお 2 少なく なった = became less = <plain-style-past-affirmative> of 少なく なります (become すく すく less) 3 綺麗に なった = became beautiful (clear) = <plain-style-past-affirmative> of 綺麗に なります きれい きれい (become beautiful (clean)) 4 汚く なった = became dirty = <plain-style-past-affirmative> of 汚く なります (become dirty) きたな きたな
* [stem of i-adjective] く なります ; [na-adjective] に なります = become [adjective] * [noun] に なります = become [noun]
□28 実験が うまく いかなかった ので、やり直した。= じっけん なお My experiment didn’t go well, so I did over again. * やり直した = did over again = <plain-style-past-affirmative> of やり直します g1 (do over なお なお again, redo, start over, remake, resume, recommence)
1 やり方を 調べた = checked how to do = <plain-style-past-affirmative> of やり方を 調べます g1 かた しら かた しら (check how to do) * (A) の [masu-form] かた = how to do (A), the way of doing (A) * やります = 1 do 2 (superior) give (inferior) 2 やり方を 教わった = (Someone) taught me how to do, I learnt how to do (from someone) = かた おそ <plain-style-nonpast-affirmative> of やり方を 教わります g1 ((Someone) teach me how to do, I おそ learn how to do (from someone)) * 教わります = be taught おそ / 9 11
3 もう一度 やった = did it again = <plain-style-past-affirmative> of もう一度 やります g1 (do it いちど いちど again) * やります = 1 do 2 (superior) give (inferior)
4 やる の を 途中で やめた = gave up doing halfway = <plain-style-past-affirmative> of やる の を とちゅう 途中で やめます g2 (give up doing halfway) * やる の = 1 to do, doing 2 to give, giving * やる = <plain-style-nonpast-affirmative> of やります g1 = 1 do 2 (superior) give (inferior) * Here ‘no’ is used to make a noun phrase (to change a verb to a noun).
□29 転びます = fall down, tumble, drop ころ
1 Because I am tired today, I (fell down) on the bed earlier. 2 Because I got a new work, to my regret, my travel plan (fell down). 3 The tree in my garden (fell down) because of the typhoon. 4 I fell down at the staircase and injured.
□30 指示 = instruction, direction しじ
1 I directed my secretary to photocopy thirty copies of this document beforehand. (‘Please photocopy thirty copies of this document beforehand.’) 2 I (directed) my teacher to check this composition. (‘Could you please check this composition?’) → 頼んだ (asked to do …) *頼みました たの たの 3 I (directed) my friend to go to see a movie tomorrow. (Let’s go to see a movie tomorrow.’) → を 誘った (invited) *誘いました さそ さそ 4 I (directed) a shop assistant where the toilet is. → 聞いた (asked) or 尋ねた (asked) *聞きました or 尋ねました き たず き たず
□31 見送ります = see off, separate from someone before a voyage; escort; wait and see みおく
1 I make sure that I (see) emails (off) everyday without fail. / 10 11
→ 見る (see) *見ます み み 2 I tried to (see) a few pages (off), but it was difficult and I didn’t understand. → 見て み 3 I like to (see) the scenery (off) from the window of the train. → 見る み 4 I saw my friend who returns to his country off at the airport. I sent my friend who returns to his country to the airpot and said farewell to him.
□32 植えます = plant, grow, sow, place seeds or vegetation into soil う
1 Various flowers are planted in the nearby park. 2 I (planted) many strawberries and creams on the cake. → 飾った (decorated) *飾ります かざ かざ 3 Regarding this airport, they (planted) soil in the sea and it was made. → 入れて (put) *入れます い い 4 We (planted) a electric light on the road, so it became bright. → 設置した (established, set up, founded; based) *設置します せっち せっち
□33 正直 = honesty, integrity, frankness, uprightness, probity, sincerity, veracity しょうじき
1 Mr Ogawa is an honest person and he never tells a lie. 2 I am going to explain the (honest) usage of this product from now. → 正しい (correct) ただ 3 Although this is an (honest) story, no one believes. (No one gives me a favor. The favor is ‘believing’.) → 本当 の 話 (a true story) ほんとう はなし 4 I don’t know the (honest) distance, but I think that it is about 10 kilo meters. → 正確 (accurate) せいかく

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